LIVSTANKAR

KRISTEN TRO FÖR UNGA - Överkurs

INNEHÅLL

I. Nya testamentets tillförlitlighet

II. Utombibliska vittnesbörd

I. NYA TESTAMENTETS TILLFÖRLITLIGHET

 

Kan man lita på att de avskrifter vi har av Nya Testamentets texter verkligen beskriver det som hände? Nej, men det gäller alla skrifter i historien. Vi får dra slutsatser av det som verkar mest sannolikt. Här är några exempel på antika författares skrifter fram till som historiker litar på:

ARISTOTELES – finns inget original kvar, men 5 kopior, den äldsta skrevs 1400 år efter originalet

PLATON – inget original, men 7 kopior, den äldsta skrevs 1200 år efter originalet

JULIUS CEASAR – inget original, 10 kopior, den äldsta skrevs 1000 år efter originalet

TACITUS – inget original, 20 kopior, den äldsta skrevs 1000 efter originalet

Nya Testamentet - inget original finns, men mer än 20000 kopior av olika NT-texter, alla inom 300 år efter originalen. Originalen antas ha skrivits mellan år 40-130 e. Kr. (folk som var med vid de händelser skrifterna berättar om kan alltså ha kontrollerat om det som skrevs var sant. Jesus antas ha dött runt år 35 e. Kr.). Den äldsta textfragmentet i original man hittat från NT var skrivet 130 e kr. Kriteriet för de kanoniserade bibliska texterna - de som är med i Nya testamentet - är att de härleds direkt till någon av apostlarna eller deras närmaste lärjungar och/eller att de var auktoriserade skrifter av de samtida kristna församlingarna. Skrifterna måste harmonisera med vad de första apostlageneratiorna lärt ut. Kanoniseringen skedde under 300-talet e. kr.

De första kristna levde under förtryck, under jorden och utan makt. Det är från dessa år alla dessa manuskript var skrivna. De hade ingen ära eller något att vinna på att skriva det som står i Bibeln eftersom de därmed riskerade sin egen död. De skrev det eftersom de hade vittnat det som hände och trodde på det. Trots detta förtryck, växte kristendomen explosionsartat, så att det år 325 e. Kr. till och med fick Romarriket att erkänna denna religion, efter århundraden av egen djupt rotad religion. Kristendomen växte helt utan tvång under de första 300 åren!

Myter och legender hade ingen chans att uppstå, spridas och få fäste under mindre än 100 år på den tiden och absolut inte i den omfattningen som kristendom. Den bygger på att människor verkligen har upplevt det som de skrivit ner. Eftersom detta dessutom handlar om Gud var det judiska folket av tradition mycket noga med att inget fick bli förändrat och fel. De var ju det utvalda folket. Och de kristna såg ju Gud i Jesus, så de följde samma tradition.

Innan man hittade Dödahavsrullarna 1947 - med bibeltexter - var glappet mellan äldsta kopia och original mer än 1300 år för GAMLA testamentet. I och med det fyndet blev avståndet endast ca 300 år och när man jämförde skrifterna mellan de 1000 åren visade det sig att 95% var EXAKT lika. Det som skilde var inget som gäller budskapet utan stavfel, man har glömt en bokstav och så vidare. Detsamma gäller för Nya Testamentet där 99,8 % i vår tid är lika. Saker som kan skiljas är t ex stavningen på platsen Golgata, som i vissa texter stavas Golgota, med "O".

Ex. Här säger vi är en vers från 6 olika kopior av originalskriften. Vad är slutsatsen av vad som kan ha stått i originalet.

Jesus från xxxxxx, Judarnas konung

Kristus Jesus från Nasaret, xxxxxx kung

Jesus Kristus, judaxxxxxxx

Jesus xxxxxx, han var judarnas kung

Xxxxx Chrestus, konug judarnas

Jesus Nasarén, kristus , judakungen

Det var 6 versioner. Tänk på att Nya Testamentet har över 20000 versioner att jämföra med! Aristoteles skrifter har 5 och dessa är det inga som ifrågasätter.

Sen finns det också andra skrifter av ickekristna från den tiden som styrker trovärdigheten av Nya Testamentets texter, skrifter av romerska historiker som Plinius den yngre, Tacitus, Suetonius med flera, samt den judiska historikern Josefus.

II. UTOMBIBLISKA VITTNESBÖRD

IDAG EXISTERANDE ICKE-KRISTNA ORIGINALSKRIFTER FRÅN ROMARRIKET, SOM INTE NÄMNER JESUS ELLER DE KRISTNA, SKRIVNA ÅR 0-100 E. KR.

Inga texter finns som nämner Jesus utan för Nya testamentets texter,

där de tidigaste breven dateras till år 45/50, evangelierna mellan år 50-120

 

· Velleius Paterculus, pensionerad arméofficer från Tiberias – Amatörhistoriebok från (år 30)

 

· Inskription från Caesarea innehållande 2/3 av Pontius Pilatus namn (30-tal)

 

· Philo Judaeus, filosofiska verk om Judisk och grekisk religion och kommentarer till Judiska skrifter

 

· Phaedrus, en makedonier som skrev fabler under 40-talet

 

· Seneca’s filosofiska verk och brev (50/60-tal)

 

· Seneca’s kusin Lucans verk om inbördeskriget mellan Julius Caesar och Pompey (50/60-tal)

 

· Columella’s jordbruksbok skriven av denna pensionerade soldat. (50/60-tal)

 

· Gaius Petronius’ novell Satyricon (50/60-tal)

 

· Persius’ satirer (50/60-tal)

 

· Plinius den äldre’s Historia Naturalis (Udda fakta från naturen, skrivet på 50/60-talet)

 

· Asconius Pedianus’ kommentarer till Cicero (50/60-tal)

 

· Quintus Curtius – Alexander den store (50/60-tal)

 

· Cornelius Tacitus - en bok med tal (år 81)

 

· Martial, hundratals poem av denne romare (70/80-tal)

 

· Flavius Iosephus’ Pros Apiona, ett apologetiskt verk judisk/grekisk (70/80-tal)

 

· Flavius Iosephus’ Peri tou Ioudaikou polemou Judarnas krig från mackabéerna till år 70 (år 73)

 

· Statius’ poet som skrev Silvae (90-tal)

 

· Quintilian’ s 12 böcker med tal (90-tal)

 

· Tacitus – 2 små böcker och en bok om hans svärfar Agricola, amt en bok om Germanien (90-tal)

 

· Juvenal’s satirer (90/100-tal)

 

· Skrifter från den religiösa folkskygga ökenkommuniteten Qumran

IDAG EXISTERANDE ICKE-KRISTNA ORIGINALSKRIFTER FRÅN ROMARRIKET, SOM NÄMNER JESUS OCH DE KRISTNA, SKRIVNA ÅR 100-200 E. KR.

· Flavius Iosephus (37-101) – Antiquities, 18 och 20 (ca år 95)

 

· Cornelius Tacitus (55-117) – Annales (Annales, 15:44, år 105)

 

· G. Plinius Caecilius Secundus (61-113) – Epistulae 10:96.7, 10:97 (år 112)

 

· G. Suetonius Tranquilla (75-160) – Divus Claudii 25, Divus Nero 16 (år 120)

 

· Lucian från Samosata (120?-190?) – The Passing of Peregrinus, 11-13 (år 170)

och Alexander the false prophet, 25 och 38 (ca år 180)

 

· Talmud (Mishnah och Gemara)– Babylonia Sanhedrin 43a (andra århundradet, komplett år 200)

 

· Mara Bar-Serapion (efter 73) – brev till sonen (British Museum, Syriac Manuscript, additonal 14:658

Flavius Iosephus (37-101)

Antiquities, 18 och 20. (ca år 95)

18. “Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”

20.AND now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Ananus, who was also himself called Ananus. Now the report goes that this eldest Ananus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. But this younger Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; when, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority]. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrim of  judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king [Agrippa], desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a sanhedrim without his consent. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.”


• Jesus var känd som en vis man som var högt ansedd
• Jesus gjorde underverk
• Jesus talade i sanning till många judar och hedningar
• Jesus dog på ett kors på order av Pontius Pilatus (3 april 33)
• Jesus sågs levande på tredje dagen efter han dog (5 april 33)
• Profetior blev verklighet i Jesus
• Jesus var Messias

Cornelius Tacitus (55-117)

Annales (Annales, 15:44, år 105)

44. “Such indeed were the precautions of human wisdom. The next thing was to seek means of propitiating the gods, and recourse was had to the Sibylline books, by the direction of which prayers were offered to Vulcanus, Ceres, and Proserpina. Juno, too, was entreated by the matrons, first, in the Capitol, then on the nearest part of the coast, whence water was procured to sprinkle the fane and image of the goddess. And there were sacred banquets and nightly vigils celebrated by married women. But all human efforts, all the lavish gifts of the emperor, and the propitiations of the gods, did not banish the sinister belief that the conflagration was the result of an order. Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judæa, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired.”

• Kristus levde under Tiberius regenttid (år 14-37)
• Pontius Pilatus dömde honom till döden
• Kristus hade efterföljare som kallas kristna
• De kristna ses som religiöst vidskepliga
• Kristna led under kejsar Nero och var hatade av andra

Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (61-113)

Epistulae 10:96, 10:97 (år 112)

Gaius Plinius to the Emperor Trajan
“It is for me an important point of responsibility to refer to you as Head of State, things about which I have questions, since you are the person best able to set straight my hesitations and correct my lack of information.

Actually I have never been present at a Examination (cognitio) of Christians, so I do not know what punishment is required or how far it is to be carried out. Nor do I understand the legal grounds for a prosecution, or how stringently it is to be prosecuted. I am not clear about prosecutions in respect to the age of the persons, whether no distinction should be made between the young and the old, and furthermore whether a pardon should be granted in cases of recanting, or if there is no advantage for a person completely ceasing to be a Christian. Or is it the name "Christian" which is prosecutable, even if not involved in criminal actions, or is that "criminality" is automatically attached to the name?

In the meantime, I now handle it this way with those who are turned over to me as Christians. I ask them directly, in person, if they are Christian, I ask a second and third time to be sure, and indicate to them the danger of their situation. If they persist, I order them led dispatched (= executed). I have had no trouble with this, since whatever it was they admitted or professed, I decided that their obstinacy and unyielding inflexibility should be sufficient reason for punishment. Some others who were virtually insane with this cult, but Roman citizens, I sent back to Rome for trial.

As I continue with this handling of the situation, as often happens, the numbers and kinds of incriminations are becoming more widespread. An anonymous List has been brought out which contains the names of a great many persons. I decided to dismiss charges again any on this list who stated that they were now not, nor had ever been Christians, if they repeated after me a prayer of invocation to the Gods, and made an offering of wine and incense to your statue, which I had brought in to the court along with the statues of the Gods, for this purpose. And in addition they were to formally curse Christ, which I understand true Christians will never do.

Other named by the anonymous List said they were Christians, and later changed their statement. Some said that they had been and then stopped, some three years before, some longer, some even twenty years before. All these reverenced your statue and those of the Gods, and cursed Christ. They stated that the sum total of their error or misjudgment, had been coming to a meeting on a given day before dawn, and singing responsively a hymn to Christ as to God, swearing with a holy oath not to commit any crime, never to steal or commit robbery, commit adultery, fail a sworn agreement or refuse to return a sum left in trust. When all this was finished, it was their custom to go their separate ways, and later re-assemble to take food of an ordinary and simple kind. But after my edict which forbids all political Societies, they did in fact give this up.I thought at this point that it was necessary to get information from two slave women, whom they call Deaconesses (ministrae) about the actual truth, by means of torture. I found nothing worthy of blame other than the blind and over-wrought nature of their cult-superstition.

I have therefore postponed further Examinations (cognitiones) and made haste to come to you immediately for consultation. This situation seem to demand serious consultation, especially in view of the large number of people falling into this danger. A great many persons of every age, of every social class, men and women alike, are being brought in to trial, and this seems likely to continue. It is not only the cities, but also the towns and even the country villages which are being infected with this cult-contagion.

It seems possible to check and reverse this direction at this point, for it is quite clear that the Temples of the Gods which have been empty for so long, now begin to be filled again, the sacred rites which had lapsed are now being performed and flesh for sacrificial rites is now sold again at the shops, although for a while nobody would buy it. So it seems reasonable to think that a great many people could be persuaded to reform, IF there were a legal procedure for Repentance.”

Emperor Trajan to Gaius Plinius
“You have done the right thing, my dear Pliny, in handling the cases of those who were brought to you under the charge of being Christians. But it is not possible to make hard and fast rule with one specific formula. These people must not be searched out, if they are brought before your court and the case against them is proved, they must be punished, but in the case of anyone who states that he is not a Christian and makes it perfectly clear that he is not, by offering prayers to out Gods, such a one is to be pardoned on the grounds of his present repentance, however suspect he may have been in the past. But anonymous lists must not have any place in the court proceedings. They are a terrible example and not at all in keeping with our times.”

• Jesus dyrkades som en gud
• Kristna träffades på en bestämd dag i veckan
• Mötet skedde innan soluppgången
• De kristna sjöng sånger till Kristus
• Kristna var överlåtna till ett heligt uppförande
• Kristna straffades av religiösa skäl
• De kunde rädda sig själva genom att tillbe de romerska gudarna
• Kristna överlämnades med hjälp av invånarna

Gaius Suetonius Tranquilla (75-160)

Divus Claudii 25 (år 120)
Divus Nero 16 (år 120)

25. “He rearranged the military career of the equites, assigning a division of cavalry after a cohort, and next the tribunate of a legion. He also instituted a fictitious kind of paid military career, which is called "supernumerary" and could be performed in absentia and in name only. He even had the Conscript Fathers [Arkenberg: The Senate] pass a decree forbidding soldiers to enter the houses of senators to pay their respects. He confiscated the property of those freedmen who passed as Roman equites, and reduced to slavery again such as were ungrateful and a cause of complaint to their patrons, declaring to their advocates that he would not entertain a suit against their own freedmen [That is, if their own freedmen proved ungrateful and they wished to bring suit against them]. When certain men were exposing their sick and worn out slaves on the Island of Aesculapius [In the Tiber at Rome, so-called from its Temple of Aesculapius] because of the trouble of treating them, Claudius  decreed that all such slaves were free, and that if they recovered, they should not return to the control of their master; but if anyone preferred to kill such a slave rather than to abandon him, he was liable to the charge of murder. He provided by an edict that travelers should not pass through the towns of Italia except on foot, or in a chair or litter. He stationed a cohort at Puteoli and one at Ostia, to guard against the danger of fires. He forbade men of foreign birth to use the Roman names so far as those of the clans [That is, the gentilician names such as Claudius, Cornelius, etc.; apparently forenames (Gaius, Lucius, and the like) and surnames (Lentulus, Nasica), might be assumed, although a foreigner often retained his native name as a surname] were concerned. Those who usurped the privileges of Roman citizenship he executed in the Esquiline field [That part of the Esquiline Hill on both sides of the Servian wall; occupied in part by the Gardens of Maecenas; see Hor. Serm. 1.8. The place of execution seems to have been outside of the Porta Esquilina]. He restored to the Senate the provinces of Achaia and Macedonia, which Tiberius had taken into his own charge. He deprived the Lykians of their independence because of deadly intestine feuds, andrestored theirs to the Rhodians, since they had given up their former faults. He allowed the people of Ilium perpetual exemption from tribute, on the ground that they were the founders of the Roman race, reading an ancient letter of the Senate and People of Rome written in Hellenic to King Seleukos, in which they promised him their friendship and alliance only on condition that he should keep their kinsfolk of Ilium free from every burden. Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus [Another form of Christus; see Tert. Apol. 3 (at the end). It is uncertain whether Suetonius is guilty of an error in chronology or is referring to some Jew of that name. The former seems probable because of the absence of "quodam". Tacitus, Ann. 15.44, uses the correct form, Christus, and states that he was executed in the reign of Tiberius], he expelled them from Rome. He allowed the envoys of the Germani to sit in the orchestra, led by their naive self-confidence; for when they had been taken to the seats occupied by the common people and saw the Parthian and Armenian envoys sitting with the Senate, they moved of their own accord to the same part of the theater, protesting that their merits and rank were no whit inferior. He utterly abolished the cruel and inhuman religion of the Druids among the Gauls, which under Augustus had merely been prohibited to Roman citizens; on the other hand he even attempted to transfer the Eleusinian rites from Attica to Rome, and had the temple of Venus Erykina in Sicily, which had fallen to ruin through age, restored at the expense of the treasury of the Roman people. He struck histreaties with foreign princes in the Forum, sacrificing a pig and reciting the ancient formula of the fetial priests. But these and other acts, and in fact almost the whole conduct of his reign, were dictated not so much by his own judgment as that of his wives and freedmen, since he nearly always acted in accordance with their interests and desires.”

16. “He devised a new form for the buildings of the city and in front of the houses and apartments be erected porches, from the flat roofs of which fires could be fought. This was undoubtedly after the great fire; and these he put up at his own cost. He had also planned to extend the walls as far as Ostia and to bring the sea from there to Rome by a canal. During his reign many abuses were severely punished and put down, and no fewer new laws were made: a limit was set to expenditures; the public banquets were confined to a distribution of food, the sale of any kind of cooked viands in the taverns was forbidden, with the exception of pulse and vegetables, whereas before every sort of dainty was exposed for sale. Punishment was inflicted on the Christians, a class of men given to a new and mischievous superstition. He put an end to the diversions of the chariot drivers, who from immunity of long standing claimed the right of ranging at large and amusing themselves by cheating and robbing the people. The pantomimic actors and their partisans were banished from the city. Because of their disorderly conduct.”

• Kristna hölls sig till en ny tro
• Kristna följde Kristus
• Kristna blev straffade och förvisade från Rom

Lucian från Samosata (120?-190?)

satiren The Passing of Peregrinus, 11-13 (år 170)
Alexander the false prophet, 25 och 38 (ca år 180)

11. “It was then that he learned the wondrous lore of the Christians, by associating with their priests and scribes in Palestine.   And—how else could it be?—in a trice he made them all look like children, for he was prophet, cult-leader, head of the synagogue, and everything, all by himself. He inter preted and explained some of their books and even composed many, and they revered him as a god, made use of him as a lawgiver, and set him down as a protector, next after that other, to be sure, whom they still worship, the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world."

12. “Then at length Proteus was apprehended for this and thrown into prison, which itself gave him no little reputation as an asset for his future career and the charlatanism and notoriety-seeking that he was enamoured of. Well, when he had been imprisoned, the Christians, regarding the incident as a calamity, left nothing undone in the effort to rescue him Then, as this was impossible, every other form of attention was shown him, not in any casual way but with assiduity, and from the very break of day aged widows and orphan children could be seen waiting near the prison, while their officials even slept inside with him after bribing the guards. Then elaborate meals were brought in, and sacred books of theirs were read aloud, and excellent Peregrinus—for he still went by that name—was called by them 'the new Socrates."

13. “Indeed, people came even from the cities in Asia, sent by the Christians at their common expense, to succour and defend and encourage the hero. They show incredible speed whenever any such public action is taken; for in no time they lavish their all.  So it was then in the case of Peregrinus; much money came to him from them by reason of his imprisonment, and he procured not a little revenue from it. The poor wretches have convinced themselves, first and foremost, that they are going to be immortal and live for all time, in consequence of which they despise death and even willingly give themselves into custody; most of them. Furthermore, their first lawgiver12 persuaded them that they are all brothers of one another after they have transgressed once, for all by denying the Greek gods and by worshipping that crucified sophist himself and living under his laws. Therefore they despise all things indiscriminately and consider them common property, receiving such doctrines traditionally without any definite evidence. So if any charlatan and trickster, able to profit by occasions, comes among them, he quickly acquires sudden wealth by imposing upon simple folk.”

25.  “When at last many sensible men, recovering, as it were, from profound intoxication, combined against him, especially all the followers of Epicurus, and when in the cities they began gradually to detect all the trickery and buncombe of the show, he issued a promulgation designed to scare them, saying that Pontus was full of atheists and Christians who had the hardihood to utter the vilest abuse of him; these he bade them drive away with stones if they wanted to have the god gracious. About Epicurus, moreover, he delivered himself of an oracle after this sort; when someone asked him how Epicurus was doing in Hades, he replied: “With leaden fetters on his feet in filthy mire he sitteth.” Do you wonder, then, that the shrine waxed great, now that you see that the questions of its visitors were intelligent and refined? In general, the war that he waged upon Epicurus was without truce or parley, naturally enough. Upon whom else would a quack who loved humbug and bitterly hated truth more fittingly make war than upon Epicurus, who discerned the nature of things and alone knew the truth in them? The followers of Plato and Chrysippus and Pythagoras were his friends, and there was profound peace with them; but “the impervious Epicurus” —for that is what he called him—was rightly his bitter enemy, since he considered all that sort of thing a laughing-matter and a joke. So Alexander hated Amastris most of all the cities in Pontus because he knew that the followers of Lepidus 23 and others like them were numerous in the city; and he would never deliver an oracle to an Amastrian. Once when he did venture to make a prediction for a senator’s brother, he acquitted himself ridiculously, since he could neither compose a clever response himself nor find anyone else who could do it in time. The man complained of colic, and Alexander, wishing to direct him to eat a pig’s foot cooked with mallow, said: “Mallow with cummin digest in a sacred pipkin of piglets.”

38. “He made these preparations to meet the situation in Italy, and also made notable preparations at home. He established a celebration of mysteries, with torch¬light ceremonies and priestly offices, which was to be held annually, for three days in succession, in perpetuity. On the first day, as at Athens,32 there was a proclamation, worded as follows: “If any atheist or Christian or Epicurean has come to spy upon the rites, let him be off, and let those who believe in the god perform the mysteries, under the blessing of Heaven.” Then, at the very outset, there was an “expulsion,” in which he took the lead, saying: “Out with the Christians,” and the whole multitude chanted in response, “Out with the Epicureans!” Then there was the child-bed of Leto, the birth of Apollo, his marriage to Coronis, and the birth of Asclepius. On the second day came the manifestation of Glycon, including the birth of the god. [39] On the third day there was the union of Podaleirius and the mother of Alexander—it was called the Day of Torches, and torches were burned. In conclusion there was the amour of Selene and Alexander, and the birth of Rutilianus’ wife. The torch-bearer and hierophant was our Endymion, Alexander. While he lay in full view, pretending to be asleep, there came down to him from the roof, as if from heaven, not Selene but Rutilia, a very pretty woman, married to one of the Emperor’s stewards. She was genuinely in love with Alexander and he with her; and before the eyes of her worthless husband there were kisses and embraces in public. If the torches had not been numerous, perhaps the thing would have been carried even further. After a short time Alexander entered again, robed as a priest, amid profound silence, and said in a loud voice, over and over again, “Hail, Glycon,” while, following in his train, a number of would-be Eumolpids and Ceryces33 from Paphlagonia, with brogans on their feet and breaths that reeked of garlic, shouted in response, “Hail, Alexander!”

• Kristna dyrkade Jesus
• Jesus blev korsfäst för det han lärde
• Jesus grundade kristendomen
• Jesus lärjungar trodde på hans läror
• De kristna lärde att när man en gång konverterat har man evigt liv
• De levde i tro och de trodde på Jesus

Talmud, Mishnah och Gemara

Babylonia Sanhedrin 43a (andra århundradet, komplett år 200)

“On the eve of Passover Yeshu was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald went forth and cried, "He is going forth to be stoned because he has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy. Any one who can say anything in his favour, let him come forward and plead on his behalf." But since nothing was brought forward in his favour he was hanged on the eve of the Passover! - Ulla retorted: Do you suppose that he was one for whom a defence could be made? Was he not a _Mesith_ [enticer], concerning him Scripture says, _Neither shalt though spare, neither shalt thou conceal him?_ With Yeshu however it was different, for he was connected with the government for royalty [i.e., influential]. Our Rabbis taught: Yeshu had five disciples, Matthai, Nakai, Nezer, Buni, and Todah.”

• Jesus hängdes (på ett kors, jfr. Gal. 3:13)
• Jesus dog på fredagseftermiddagen under den judiska påsken
• Ingen försvarade Jesus

Mara Bar-Serapion  (efter 73)

brev till sonen (British Museum, Syriac Manuscript, additonal 14:658)

“What advantage did the Athenians gain from putting Socrates to death? Famine and plague came upon them as a judgment for their crime. What advantage did the men of Samos gain from burning Pythagoras? In a moment their land was covered with sand. What advantage did the Jews gain from executing their wise king? It was just after that that their kingdom was abolished. God justly avenged these three wise men: the Athenians died of hunger; the Samians were overwhelmed by the sea; the Jews, ruined and driven from their land, live in complete dispersion. But Socrates did not die for good; he lived on in the teaching of Plato. Pythagoras did not die for good; he lived on in the statue of Hera. Nor did the wise king die for good; he lived on in the teaching which he had given.”

• Jesus ansågs vara en vis kung
• Jesus blev dödad
• Jesus lära levde vidare

ICKE-KRISTNA PERSONER FRÅN ÅR 0-200 E. KR. CITERADE AV SENARE KRISTNA ÅR 200-300 E. KR.

• Pontius Pilatus (1-37) Acts of Pontius Pilatus, hänvisning från Epiphanius (Heresies 50:1) och Justus Martyren (1st Apology 35 och 48)


• Thallus, historiker som skrev år 52, citerad genom Julius Africanus (The extant writings 18) År 221


• Phlegon’s Chronicles (år 80) citerad genom Origenes (år 245) och Philopon (Contra Celsum 2:14,33,59, De Opif Mund 11:211)


• Kejsar Hadrianus – brev till Minucius Fundanus, hänvisning från Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History 4)


• Tacitus fragment från Histories, citeras i Sulpicius Severus’ (Chronicles, 2:29.1-4a, 2:30.6-7.

Pontius Pilatus (1-37)

Hänvisning - Acts of Pontius Pilatus,
Epiphanius (Heresies 50:1)
Justus Martyren (1st Apology 35 och 48)

• Kristus gjorde fantastiska under
• Kristus dog på ett kors, spikad i händer och fötter

Thallus (år 52)

citerad genom Julius Africanus (The extant writings 18) År 221

• Mörker täckte jorden vid tiden för Kristus död
• Den enda frågan var vad som orsakade mörkret.
• Tidpunkten för mörkret överensstämmer med Matt. 27:45
• Solförmörkelse är inte en förklaring – det var ett under.
• En stor jordbävning ägde rum när Kristus död

Phlegon (år 80? 140?)

Chronicles, citerad genom Origenes (Contra Celsum 2:14,33,59)
citerad genom Philopon (De Opif Mund 11:211? ev. 2:21?)

• Jesus kände till framtiden
• Jesus förutsägelser stämde
• Solen var förmörkad när Kristus dog
• Dessa fakta nedtecknades i en historisk skrift om Kejsar Tiberius

Kejsar Hadrianus  (76-138)

Hänvisning - brev till Minucius Fundanus
Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History 4)

• Det fanns kristna under kejsar Hadrianus regim
• Kristna var i konflikt med samhället

Cornelius Tacitus (år 117)

Histories, citeras i Sulpicius Severus’ Chron. 2:29.1-4a och 2:30.6-7

Dessa passager har i stort sett samma innehåll som Tacitus Annales 15.44 som citerats ovan

SAMMANFATTNING AV INFORMATION KRING JESUS OCH HANS EFTERFÖLJARE FRÅN ICKE-KRISTNA TEXTER UNDER DE FÖRSTA TRE ÅRHUNDRADENA EFTER KRISTUS

• Profetior blev verklighet i Jesus
• Kristus levde under Tiberius regenttid (år 14-37)
• Jesus var känd som en vis man som var högt ansedd
• Jesus gjorde underverk
• Kristus gjorde fantastiska under
• Jesus kände till framtiden• Jesus förutsägelser stämde
• Jesus talade i sanning till många judar och hedningar
• Jesus ansågs vara en vis kung
• Jesus var Messias
• Pontius Pilatus dömde honom till döden
• Ingen försvarade Jesus
• Jesus hängdes (på ett kors, jfr. Gal. 3:13)
• Jesus blev korsfäst för det han lärde
• Kristus dog på ett kors, spikad i händer och fötter
• Jesus blev dödad
• Jesus dog på ett kors på order av Pontius Pilatus
• Jesus dog på fredagseftermiddagen under den judiska påsken
• Mörker täckte jorden vid tiden för Kristus död
• Solen var förmörkad när Kristus död
• Den enda frågan var vad som orsakade mörkret.
• Tidpunkten för mörkret överensstämmer med Matt. 27:45
• Solförmörkelse är inte en förklaring – det var ett under.
• En stor jordbävning ägde rum när Kristus dog
• Dessa fakta nedtecknades i en historisk skrift om Kejsar Tiberius
• Jesus sågs levande på tredje dagen efter han dog
• Jesus lära levde vidare
• Kristus hade efterföljare som kallas kristna
• Kristna hölls sig till en ny tro
• Jesus grundade kristendomen
• Jesus dyrkades som en gud
• Kristna dyrkade Jesus
• Kristna följde Kristus
• Jesus lärjungar trodde på hans läror
• De levde i tro och de trodde på Jesus
• De kristna sågs som religiöst vidskepliga
• Kristna träffades på en bestämd dag i veckan
• Mötet skedde innan soluppgången
• De kristna sjöng sånger till Kristus
• De kristna lärde att när man en gång konverterat har man evigt liv
• Kristna var överlåtna till ett heligt uppförande
• Kristna var i konflikt med samhället
• Kristna led under kejsar Nero och var hatade av andra
• Kristna överlämnades med hjälp av invånarna
• Kristna straffades av religiösa skäl
• Kristna blev straffade och förvisade från Rom
• De kunde rädda sig själva genom att tillbe de romerska gudarna
• Det fanns kristna under kejsar Hadrianus regim

DEN SÄKRASTE INFORMATIONEN FRÅN CA. ÅR 105-117 E. KR.

• Kristus levde under Tiberius regenttid (år 14-37)
• Pontius Pilatus dömde honom till döden
• Kristus hade efterföljare som kallas kristna
• Jesus dyrkades som en gud
• De kristna ses som religiöst vidskepliga
• Kristna träffades på en bestämd dag i veckan
• Mötet skedde innan soluppgången
• De kristna sjöng sånger till Kristus
• Kristna var överlåtna till ett heligt uppförande
• Kristna led under kejsar Nero och var hatade av andra
• Kristna straffades av religiösa skäl
• Kristna överlämnades med hjälp av invånarna
• De kunde rädda sig själva genom att tillbe de romerska gudarna

EVENTUELLT ÄVEN DENNA INFORMATION VID EN TIDIG DATERING CA ÅR 73-117 E. KR.

• Jesus ansågs vara en vis kung
• Jesus blev dödad
• Jesus lära levde vidare

ANDLIGA SKRIFTER FRÅN 0-300 E .KR. DÄR JESUS OMNÄMNS, (ORIGINAL SAKNAS OFTA ÄVEN HÄR.)

Referens: www.earlychristianwritings.com

  • 50-120 Didache
  • 50-140 Gospel of Thomas
  • 50-140 Oxyrhynchus 1224 Gospel
  • 50-200 Sophia of Jesus Christ
  • 70-120 Egerton Gospel
  • 70-160 Gospel of Peter
  • 70-160 Secret Mark
  • 70-200 Fayyum Fragment
  • 70-200 Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
  • 80-120 Epistle of Barnabas
  • 80-130 Acts of the Apostles
  • 80-140 1 Clement
  • 80-150 Gospel of the Egyptians
  • 80-150 Gospel of the Hebrews
  • 80-250 Christian Sibyllines
  • 90-120 Epistle of Jude
  • 100-150 Apocalypse of Peter
  • 100-150 Secret Book of James
  • 100-150 Preaching of Peter
  • 100-160 Gospel of the Ebionites
  • 100-160 Gospel of the Nazoreans
  • 100-160 Shepherd of Hermas
  • 100-200 Odes of Solomon
  • 101-220 Book of Elchasai
  • 105-115 Ignatius of Antioch
  • 110-140 Polycarp to the Philippians
  • 110-140 Papias
  • 110-160 Oxyrhynchus 840 Gospel
  • 110-160 Traditions of Matthias
  • 120-130 Quadratus of Athens
  • 120-130 Apology of Aristides
  • 120-140 Basilides
  • 120-140 Naassene Fragment
  • 120-160 Valentinus
  • 120-180 Apocryphon of John
  • 120-180 Gospel of Mary
  • 120-180 Dialogue of the Savior
  • 120-140 Naassene Fragment
  • 120-160 Valentinus
  • 120-180 Apocryphon of John
  • 120-180 Gospel of the Savior
  • 120-180 2nd Apocalypse of James
  • 120-180 Trimorphic Protennoia
  • 130-140 Marcion
  • 130-150 Aristo of Pella
  • 130-160 Epiphanes On Righteousness
  • 130-160 Ophite Diagrams
  • 130-160 2 Clement
  • 130-170 Gospel of Judas
  • 130-200 Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus
  • 140-150 Epistula Apostolorum
  • 140-160 Ptolemy
  • 140-160 Isidore
  • 140-170 Fronto
  • 140-170 Infancy Gospel of James
  • 140-170 Infancy Gospel of Thomas
  • 140-180 Gospel of Truth
  • 150-160 Martyrdom of Polycarp
  • 150-160 Justin Martyr
  • 150-180 Excerpts of Theodotus
  • 150-180 Heracleon
  • 150-200 Ascension of Isaiah
  • 150-200 Acts of Peter
  • 150-200 Acts of John
  • 150-200 Acts of Paul
  • 150-200 Acts of Andrew
  • 150-225 Acts of Peter and the Twelve
  • 150-225 Book of Thomas the Contender
  • 150-250 Fifth and Sixth Books of Esra
  • 150-300 Authoritative Teaching
  • 150-300 Coptic Apocalypse of Paul
  • 150-300 Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth
  • 150-300 Melchizedek
  • 150-400 Anti-Marcionite Prologues
  • 160-170 Tatian's Address to the Greeks
  • 160-180 Claudius Apollinaris
  • 160-180 Apelles
  • 160-180 Julius Cassianus
  • 160-250 Octavius of Minucius Felix
  • 161-180 Acts of Carpus
  • 165-175 Melito of Sardis
  • 165-175 Hegesippus
  • 165-175 Dionysius of Corinth
  • 167 Marcus Aurelius
  • 170-175 Diatessaron
  • 170-200 Dura-Europos Gospel Harmony
  • 170-200 Muratorian Canon
  • 170-200 Treatise on the Resurrection
  • 170-220 Letter of Peter to Philip
  • 175-180 Athenagoras of Athens
  • 175-185 Irenaeus of Lyons
  • 175-185 Rhodon
  • 175-185 Theophilus of Caesarea
  • 175-190 Galen
  • 178 Celsus
  • 178 Letter from Vienna and Lyons
  • 180 Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs
  • 180-185 Theophilus of Antioch
  • 180-185 Acts of Apollonius
  • 150-400 Anti-Marcionite Prologues
  • 180-220 Bardesanes
  • 180-220 Kerygmata Petrou
  • 180-230 Hippolytus of Rome
  • 180-250 1st Apocalypse of James
  • 180-250 Gospel of Philip
  • 182-202 Clement of Alexandria
  • 185-195 Maximus of Jerusalem
    185-195 Polycrates of Ephesus
  • 189-199 Victor I
  • 190-210 Pantaenus
  • 193 Anonymous Anti-Montanist
  • 193-216 Inscription of Abercius
  • 197-220 Tertullian
  • 200-210 Serapion of Antioch
  • 200-210 Apollonius
  • 200-220 Caius
  • 200-220 Philostratus
  • 200-225 Acts of Thomas
  • 200-250 Didascalia
  • 200-250 Books of Jeu
  • 200-300 Pistis Sophia
  • 200-300 Coptic Apocalypse of Peter
  • 203 Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas
  • 203-250 Origen